Centrifuge

Centrifuges and centrifuge-based simulators are used for improving cosmonauts’ G-tolerance capabilities. Improvement of a human body capability for adaptation to g-loads by means of objective training in a centrifuge is associated with displaying the latent mechanism of blood redistribution which triggers when blood circulation is distressed. When g-loads are applied regularly new behavior reflex links are formed in the operator’s central nervous system. These links activates when g-loads grow. Thus g-tolerance may be improved by 1.5-2 units.

The first centrifuge – CF-7 – was developed and put in operation in 1973. It was designed for performing the following tasks:

  • To test g-tolerance during cosmonaut and pilot selection;
  • To conduct studies of the influence of spaceflight extreme factors on a human body;
  • To conduct medical studies on developing methods of how to improve the g-tolerance, reduce negative effects of acceleration, and predict the g-load capability of a human-being;
  • To develop dynamic simulators of future vehicles;
  • To test aeronautical and space engineering models.

Technical characteristics of the CF-7 centrifuge:

Rotation radius - 7 m
Maximum g-load  - 20 g
Maximum g-load rate - 7 g/sec
Maximum angular rate  - 50,7 rpm
Actuator power: nominal - 820 kW
                        starting  - 1280 kW

 

At present the CF-7 simulator-centrifuge is used for cosmonaut candidate selection, training them within different programs, and pilots training for the purpose of the Air Force needs.

The second centrifuge - CF-18, intended for cosmonaut selection and training under the effect of simulated spaceflight factors, was put in operation in 1980. Linear G-loads, physiological weightlessness, reduced pressure, humidity and temperature variations, and air composition are simulated in the cabin of the centrifuge.

The CF-18 centrifuge consists of:

  • Electric actuator;
  • Tube-structured frame with counter-weight;
  • Three changeable cabins (, , );
  • Engineering and technological systems.

Technical characteristics of the CF-7 centrifuge:

Mass of the centrifuge rotating elements  - 300 tons
Rotation lever radius - 18 m
Maximum g-load - 30 g
Maximum g-load gradien - 5 g /sec;
Variations of pressure in a cabin from 800 to 40 mmHg in 9 minutes
Variations of temperature in a cabin from +5° to +50°
Variations of humidity in a cabin 30 70%;
Variations of percentage of the air composition in the cabin: nitrogen - 56-83%; oxygen - 17-40%; hydrogen - 0-4%


The CF-18 centrifuge has 3 changeable cabins (, , ). Cabin A is used for different research and cosmonaut training and includes 2 work stations. Cabin B is intended for conduction specific medical investigations and includes X-ray equipment. Cabin is intended for simulation exercises of a spacecraft control during descent phase and includes a mockup of a manned spacecraft work station.